New GOP COVID Relief Bill Doesn’t Include More Stimulus Checks, Cuts Extra Unemployment Pay In Half…#230

Lobbyists
Yes, the Lobbyist are paying the people you vote for to vote for what big companies want. Your Representatives, House, Senate, collectively Congress they live well, have free health insurance and get paid to vote against you.

The last Stimulus relief Bill had hidden within its folds the following, what will be found out later about this stimulus approval, who or what will get a big check before the American people?

First Stimulus passed out hidden money when Americans were hungry, homes foreclosed, evicted for non-rent payment, the money the government hid could have helped shut down the Virus.

  1. Casinos were able to tap government loans.
  2. $25 billion in loans and loan guarantees reserved for the airlines.
  3. Trump extended terms of up to seven senior military leaders.
  4. Free video conference and phone calls for inmates.
  5. Harbor dredging: Lobbying for ports that need dredging work, like the one in Mobile, Ala., in Senate Appropriations Chairman Richard Shelby’s (R-Ala.) home state.
  6. Streamlining the approval process for sunscreen ingredients.
  7. Tax-preferred treatment to feminine-hygiene products.
  8. Temporary repeal of alcohol excise taxes for makers of hand sanitizer.
  9. A measure to promote sexual abstinence.
  10. Makers of over-the-counter drugs, won inclusion of a long-sought bill to change the federal approval process for new products.
  11. Aerospace giant Boeing Co., chief beneficiary of a $17-billion loan.
  12. $75 million each for the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities, which give grants to museums and artists.
  13. $7.5 million for the Smithsonian Institution.
  14. $25 million for the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.
  15. $500-billion slush fund for corporations.

Top 50 Lobbying Spenders of 2016, we need to start standing alone and get rid of the people who lobby for special spending funds. Those in “bold” are questionable to me. My choice of possible necessary one’s is healthcare and mail services.  Unnecessary, approximately $108,000,000.  That money could go a long way toward “healthcare”.

Client20162015
U.S. Chamber of Commerce$103,950,000$84,730,000
National Association of Realtors$64,821,111$37,788,407
Blue Cross Blue Shield$25,006,109$23,702,049
American Hospital Association$20,970,809$20,687,935
Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America$19,730,000$18,920,000
American Medical Association$19,410,000$21,930,000
Boeing$17,020,000$21,921,000
National Association of Broadcasters$16,438,000$17,400,000
AT&T$16,370,000$16,370,000
Business Roundtable$15,700,000$19,250,000
Alphabet$15,430,000$16,660,000
Comcast$14,330,000$15,680,000
Southern Co.$13,900,000$12,860,000
Dow Chemical$13,635,982$10,820,000
Lockheed Martin$13,615,811$13,954,053
NCTA – The Internet and Telephone Assoc.$13,420,000$14,120,000
FedEx$12,541,000$12,405,835
Northrop Grumman$12,050,000$11,020,000
Exxon Mobil$11,840,000$11,980,000
Amazon$11,354,000$9,435,000
CTIA$10,970,000$10,150,000
General Dynamics$10,739,944$10,259,890
Verizon Communications$10,080,000$11,430,000
Altria Group$10,060,000$9,630,000
Amgen$9,860,000$10,525,000
Koch Industries$9,840,000$10,830,000
American Bankers Association$9,831,000$12,690,000
Pfizer$9,750,000$9,417,650
Prudential Financial$9,400,000$7,962,500
Biotechnology Innovation Organization$9,230,000$8,350,000
United Technologies$9,165,000$11,470,000
American Chemistry Council$9,020,000$10,050,000
Royal Dutch Shell$8,990,000$8,700,000
AARP$8,710,000$7,559,000
Microsoft$8,710,000$8,490,000
Facebook$8,692,000$9,850,000
Edison Electric Institute$8,620,000$8,350,000
Oracle$8,620,000$8,470,000
General Motors$8,500,000$9,120,000
National Association of Manufacturers$8,490,014$16,950,000
National Amusements (CBS & Viacom)$8,441,000$7,980,000
T-Mobile$8,089,900$6,127,000
Bayer$7,990,000$7,730,000
Coca-Cola$7,930,000$8,670,000
American Airlines$7,870,000$6,600,000
United Parcel Service$7,767,848$8,155,856
Chevron$7,470,000$7,200,000
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers$7,452,500$7,640,000
Securities Industry & Financial Market Assoc.$7,400,000$7,770,000
AbbVie$7,260,000$5,220,000

Let’s get Donald Trump out of the White House, do not re-elect the government officials who would put themselves and their lobbying above a hungry child.  Companies that “lobby” for special treatment, stop buying from those companies.  Support hometown and small business; buy used cars from a hometown business and not dealerships, support local.  Let’s take America back!

©elizabethannjohnsonmurphree

Authors Books are on Amazon and Barnes&Nobel

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/s/Elizabeth%20Ann%20Johnson%20Murphree

https://bookshop.org/books?keywords=Elizabeth+Ann+Johnson-Murphree

Another Trump Day…#227

Thank you for checking my son, Chuck Murphree’s new book, it is out on Amazon and Barnes&Noble.

E.

Donald never gives up and frankly I am tired of his erratic behavior. E.

Donald Trump as he is nearing fully fledged campaigning continues his “little” games of words.  He has now criticized Joe Biden’s selection process, and is saying that Biden has “INSULTED” some men by Biden’s decision to select a woman as his running mate.  His sexist remark once again degrades all women, and his words border on sexual harassment.  

Another publicized statement, Trump said, “I would be inclined to go a different route than what he’s done,” indicating that Biden “roped himself off into, you know, a certain group of people.” Is Trump’s CERTAIN GROUP OF PEOPLE, women, black, white, red hair, tall, short, etc.   Again a sexist, degrading statement by our president, the leader of the free world.  Biden campaign spokesperson Andrew Bates said Trump is “easily threatened.” The once again he had a play on words, Trump said, “Some people would say that men are insulted by that. And some people would say its fine.” Covering his ass once again.

Biden is expected to announce his running mate at the Democratic National Convention.  The USA has never had a female VP and Hillary Clinton lost her bid for the WH.

The sex or the color of one’s skin is not the problem here; the problem is that the USA needs someone to help the president to turn around this county.  A president that is not insulting, negligence and has a record of failed leadership.  We have approximately 5 million Americans infected with Corona Virus, and approximately 160,000 that has died, and tens of millions jobless.

Now Trump is focusing on sports in the midst of the pandemic.  He wants all sports to resume saying, “These players are young, strong people and they’re physically in extraordinary shape, and will not have a problem.  Ending “You’re not going to see people dying”, now he is predicting the future.  He feels the same about school opening and places of business.

Instead, Trump claimed without evidence that U.S. vaccines “are ready to rock” and contended that “a lot of doctors swear by” hydroxychloroquine as a Corona Virus treatment. Robust medical research has shown the antimalarial drug is not helpful to Covid-19 patients.

Trump is critical of Biden, referencing a recent U.S. intelligence assessment that concluded Russia is targeting Biden ahead of November’s election while China is hoping Trump will lose. He concluded that “They’ll own the United States if he wins,” Trump said of Beijing. “And with me, they were having the worst year in 67 years because I tariff the hell out of them.”  Wake up Trump, most foreign countries own a piece of America.  A large chunk of sovereign debt is held by China and Japan combining together to nearly 50%.  Japan holds the largest amount of U.S. portfolio assets, followed by China. However, China is the largest foreign holder of U.S., so Mr. Trump we actually need to concentrate on getting you out of the White House.

©2020elizabethannjohnsonmurphree

Authors Books at Amazon and Barnes&Noble:

Why Vote…#226

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It appears that Donald Trump is up to his same old tricks, now he wants to delay voting, why?  I believe this is just another ploy to give him time to reach his followers, to cause more havoc upon the American people.

Trump now believes that mail-in-voting is a fraud and it will most likely be rigged against him.  My fear is that Trump will rig the election in his favor, if possible.   I believe that he believes that he will be the “forever” president.   

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Kentucky Republican was swift to condemn the idea promising that the election would take place in November.  Thump has no power to change the election date.  The election date has not changed since 1845.  The 20th amendment also says that the four-year term of the president and vice-president ends on January 20.  I am certain that Trump see’s the edge of the cliff. Finding people are ready to push him off. 

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What I want people to remember is the mudslinging that was done in the 2016 election and how it will return in 2020. 

Trump pulled some inappropriate stunts to win the 2016 United States presidential election.  Lest we forget, Donald Trump has a long scandals rap sheet.  It appears he is untouchable. 

Women have accused his of sexual misconduct and he has been sued for defamation. His exploits were known while campaigning and he still won.  Trump won election despite the many allegations of sexual harassment and misconduct told by women.  They did not derail his presidential hopes; many of them remain live issues as Trump transitioned into the White House and during the past four years. 

He has bragged about sexually assaulting women, “Grab them by the pu%$y. You can do anything,” he said, “I just start kissing them. It’s like a magnet. Just kiss. I don’t even wait. And when you’re a star they let you do it. You can do anything”.  Is this what America has turned into, a despicable place to raise children, among some vile dangerous people and a president that openly is nothing but a “dirty old man”.  This is not my America.  Let’s not let Trump delay our cleaning up America, we especially need to clean up the White House.

Some ask, what would happen if Trump does not win and refuses to leave the White House.  It has been suggested that Trump might not leave when his presidency ends.  If he loses the election in 2020, there will not be a peaceful transition of power.  If Trump were inclined to overstay his term, the levers of power work in favor of removal. Trump would no longer be immune from criminal prosecution, and could be arrested and charged with trespassing in the White House.

2020©elizabethannjohnsonmurphree

Authors books at Amazon.com and Barnes&Noble.com

Donald Trump – Joe Biden…#224

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Donald Trump – Joe Biden

I have to vote, but I am not sure that there is any candidate that will live up to my principles. I am not certain how I feel about Joe Biden and his potential choice of a “running mate”, I do know that I do not want Donald Trump another four years.

First, being female and having a disable child, I have a problem with Trump’s verbal communication about women, his making fun of the disabled.  He has to be the most vile, evil individual and in his running of America he is no better than Hitler’s Germany.  He believes in concentration camps in China, he caged Hispanic children at the border; many have yet to get back to their parents.  What more must he do to have people see who he really is?

His largest follow bases are Christians.  Are they lost children of God, to follow an individual who actions is that of an anti-Christ, the Devil!  What is a Christian?  Billy Graham said, “A Christian is a man, woman, or child who has experienced a spiritual new birth through the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit. I believe good Christians are kind and decent people. Good Christians are compassionate.  Donald Trump does not fit into this category.

In all my research I find that a great number of Christians worship Donald Trump.  He has been called “The Great White Hope”.  That statement alone frightens me, the reference to “white” leaves out a great number of races and colors.  It is a term that would be used by the KKK. 

It is said by his followers that Trump is “Number one, He is white, He is of God”.  Humans have created images of Jesus-God as white, when in all reality he was a dark skin man, would Trump or his followers, feel as they do if they accepted the truth?  When I hear words praising Trump, I see them as KKK.  Other terms I have heard are “A modern King David”, “God’s Candidate”.  I feel that Donald Trump has created a Cult, and as it is said, his rallies are his churches and he is the “Gospel”.

The only way to stop this madness is to “Vote”!

Then there is Joe Biden, I am concerned about his choice of a running mate.  The individual must have the experience and strength to possibly be the president if something should happen to Biden.  He has committed to choosing a woman; I am Leary of this as well.  Oh, don’t get me wrong, women can run this country and do an excellent job, but will she be allowed to do so?  Look what Washington did to Obama; he had to fight every step of the way, eight years.  Now, we must wait to see if he in fact chooses a woman, and a woman of color.

The only way to stop Trumps madness is to “Vote”!

These are trying times, I am a Christian, and I have been here before, and survived.  There are a great number of wonderful Christians who do great things in life.  We should be careful not to judge anyone, but also be careful of whom we trust.  America will survive.  With the Virus turning our world upside down, we need to stay safe; and believe that America was great before Trump became president, it is great and we will become stronger.  This is my hope, my dream, my prayer.

2020©elizabethannjohnsonmurphree

Trump Supports Chinese Concentrations Camps…#219

Trump supports Chinese concentrations camps.

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It was bought to my attention yesterday that the Uighur Muslims were being sent to Chinese concentration camps.  When I researched this horrific situation I could not get it out of my mind.  I understand that international concern has been growing about what China is doing to its Uighur Muslim population, a minority community in China’s northwestern Xinjiang province. Reports have emerged of China ‘homogenizing’ the Uighur’s, segregation, reassignment of mind and loyalty.  These people claim closer ethnic ties to Turkey and other central Asian countries than to China.  Around a million Uyghur’s, Kazakhs and other Muslims have been bundled into internment camps, where they are allegedly being schooled into giving up their identity, and assimilate better in the communist country dominated by the Han Chinese. Most horrific of all is that our president Donald Trump agrees that the concentration camps are a good idea.  That is beyond frightening, his method is clearly fear-provoking.

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This news, information is frightening, why?  Because this is what our President Trump is wanting and /or is doing to those who want to come across our American/Mexican border. 

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Those of you who live in our bordering countries, and America; does this sound familiar to you?  In China, children have been separated from their parents, families torn apart; an entire population kept under surveillance and cut off from the rest of the world. The few survivors who have managed to escape the country have been reported physical, mental and sexual torture at these camps.

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In the United States, border authorities are detaining children in large groups, and for longer periods of time, increases their severe health risks and the likelihood of human rights violations.  Shelters are found diluted soap in the bathrooms, large groups of children crowded in a room for their legal screenings and no evidence of sanitizing the room before or after.  We’re in the middle of a global pandemic — none of this is acceptable.

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Trump in the midst of an intense election campaign that may determine whether democracy survives, he is employing his expertise to try and divert and deflect attention. It appears that he still has the gift if you call it that; to psychological manipulate a person or a group, covertly sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or group, making them question their own memory, perception, or judgment, often evoking in them cognitive discord and other changes including low self-esteem. Using denial, misdirection, contradiction, and misinformation, to threaten his victim and delegitimize his victim’s beliefs.  His daily strategy, to Soviet-style change the facts surrounding the Corona Virus and his utter incompetence in destroying our pandemic prevention and treatment program because it was formed by Barack Obama.

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However, we would be inhumane if we ignored what has been largely forgotten amidst the election year and the arrival of the Corona Virus in the United States, with a bumbling and two-faced response by the Trump administration.  We would be inhumane to forget that the lives of migrant children and parents from Mexico and Central America are on the line as Trump is apparently taking no precautions to prevent the transmission of the virus in the overcrowded detention centers. They are ripe for the rapid spread of a highly contagious, potentially deadly virus.

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Black Lives Matter, All Lives Matter, but can we only fight one battle at a time?  We need to unite as one Nation.  We need to prioritize our battles.  Instead of “Marching in the Streets” destroying America, we should be marching on these cages that our neighbor Mexico’s children are kept in like dogs.  We need a leader who can take care of America.  We use to be a country that fought for freedom, for everyone; have so many died in vain defending the honor of people everywhere of different race, color, and regelious beliefs.  When did we lose our honor to defend…

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Migrants initially detained in the United States in cages and cramped for-profit detention centers are often treated with cruelty, hostility, and abuse – because cruelty is the point of the Trump administration, and carried out under the watchful eye of racist.  Trump has carefully put in place his own concentration camps without us lifting a finger to stop him.  Like Hitler, he has his followers and are we going to have our camps and ovens in this country?

Congressional delegations who have been able to enter some of the “concentration camps”, a valid name because of crushed confinement have noted horrifying scenes of blood from female periods, feces, filthy clothes, and inadequate meals, all amidst the smell of urine.

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A Southern Poverty Law Center article noted that child separation was taking place as early as 2018, when in one two-month period 2000 children were separated from their parents. An SPLC story described one wretched “detention center” in McAllen, Texas:

In 2018, Journalists and human rights advocates toured an old warehouse in McAllen, Texas, where hundreds of children are being kept in a series of cages made of mental fencing. Journalist reported that overhead lighting stays on around the clock, children are sleeping under “large foil sheets,” older children are forced to change the diapers of toddlers and that children have no books or toys. One toddler is seen crying uncontrollably and pounding her fists on a mat.

The Trump administration under a federal court order is supposed to have stopped separating children from their parents, but in October 2019 a headlined read, “The [US] Government Has Taken At Least 1,100 Children from Their Parents since Family Separations Officially Ended.” The story notes that more separations have taken place, because the Department of Homeland Security Record keeping is so bad, and even the location of many children is unknown.

According it is said that, “new government data shows the United States detained a staggering 69,550 migrant children in 2019.” Sometimes 13,000 or more children were detained at a time.  There have been several deaths of children in the detention centers, communicable diseases and untreated illnesses.

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In  bigoted, racist, incompetent and incoherent remarks, Donald Trump suggested at his Charleston, SC campaign rally that he may close off the Mexican border because the Corona Virus might be transmitted by Mexicans and Central Americans crossing into the US, as if his dream of a wall could prevent a virus from infecting people in the US. His knowledge of disease transmission is that of an idiot…no Donald Trump is lower than pond scum.

Trump knows how to use racism to incite his base, so now he is even implying a pandemic virus may be associated with non-whites. However, and in unfortunate circumstances, unlike the servile DC press corps Trump transcriptionists, the Corona Virus is indifferent to Trump’s posturing, threaten deception. It infects regardless of Trump’s derangement and self-aggrandizement.

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Furthermore, there are tent and shanty town cities just over the Mexican border as part of Trump “Remain in Mexico” asylum Mexico program that are also prime targets for a contagion that thrives in concentrated environments of people. That too is being done in our name, and we remain quiet at the peril of our consciences being marred by our silent consent to the policies of Trump . Meanwhile, the children and adults in inhumane detention conditions are at high risk for the Corona Virus, and there remains little news or concern about their plight.

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China targeting the Uyghur’s, Xinjiang is technically an autonomous region within China — its largest region, rich in minerals, and sharing borders with eight countries, including India, Pakistan, Russia and Afghanistan.  The Uyghur’s are Muslim; they don’t speak Mandarin as their native language, and have ethnicity and culture that is different from that of mainland China.  Over the past few decades, as economic prosperity has come to Xinjiang, it has brought with it in large numbers the majority Han Chinese, who have cornered the better jobs, and left the Uyghur’s feeling their livelihoods and identity were under threat.  This led to sporadic violence, in 2009 culminating in a riot that killed 200 people, mostly Han Chinese, in the region’s capital Urumqi.

People could be sent to the government’s “radicalization camps” for showing any signs of extremism, with the government deciding what was “extremism” — sporting beards, fasting during Ramzan, dressing differently from the majority, sending greetings, praying “too often”, giving up smoking and drinking, or not knowing Mandarin.  The brighter of the Uighur children are sent to boarding schools and colleges so they could be honed into civil servants loyal to China.

Yes, this is a communist country, is China going the way of the Jewish holocaust?  In three years, the government is estimated to have put one million people in the “re-education” camps, making them leave behind their jobs, property — and their children.

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A former inmate said that, “They wouldn’t let me sleep, they would hang me up for hours, and they would beat me. They had thick wooden and rubber batons, whips made from twisted wire, needles to pierce the skin, pliers for pulling out the nails. All these tools were displayed on the table in front of me, ready to use at any time. And I could hear other people screaming as well.” 

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People are told they should be grateful the government is taking pains to reform their relatives “infected by the radicalism”. Those who still persist with questions are told there is a credit system in place to decide when the inmates can leave the camps, and their behavior will impact their relatives’ credit.  Because the inmates have not been charged for any crime, there is no question of a legal fight against their detention.  But even those who are not in the camps are not quite free. The government has put in place a surveillance system that includes face recognition cameras, software to monitor Uyghur’s’ phone activities, QR codes on homes that tell authorities how many members are inside the house, QR codes on any domestic tool that can be used as a weapon, such as a knife.

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Trump supports the concentration camps.  China has maintained it is only de-radicalizing some of its errant citizenry, and has asked the world to “respect its sovereignty” in dealing with its internal matters.  Trump told China’s President that building concentration camps for millions of Uighur Muslims was ‘exactly the right thing to do,’ President Donald Trump expressed approval of a concentration camp for Uighur Muslims in China during a private meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping, according to former national security adviser John Bolton’s upcoming memoir, “The Room Where It Happened.” 

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Is Trump smarter than we think he is, has he slowing made changes that appear to be more communist every day, does his support of concentration camps give you reason to doubt where he is leading this country?

EAJM

Authors Books:

Hiram Ulysses Grant owned one slave, his wife’s father owned many…#218

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During this country Black Lives Matter and other National events as you know I have given thought to what truly happen in those years and the past in general.   I believe that the Presidents and Blacks that owned Slaves did not end with the Civil War, as it has been within us like a volcano in the earth, waiting to erupt.  The intent of Slavery for both the white and black man was money, the number of acreage and slaves meant wealth.  Some political.  The problems with America lies within the confined lives of many Americans today, this current series follows the lives of many who denied their part in slavery or today’s BLM, violence, death and destruction  throughout America.

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Hiram Ulysses Grant eighteenth President was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, in 1822.  His ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.   Grant’s great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War, and his grandfather, Noah, served in the American Revolution at Bunker Hill.  A history of “fighters”. 

Grant graduated West Point in 1843, ranked 21st out of 39 in his class and was promoted the next day to the rank brevet second lieutenant. Grant planned to resign his commission after his four-year term of duty. He would later write to a friend that among the happiest days of his life were the day he left the presidency and the day he left the academy.  The man, who made history, hated it!

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Grant became engaged to, Julia Boggs Dent, in 1844.  Four years later, they were married at Julia’s home in St. Louis. Grant’s abolitionist father disapproved of the Dents owning slaves and neither of Grant’s parents attended the wedding.  After the wedding, Grant obtained a two-month extension to his leave and returned to St. Louis when he decided, with a wife to support, that he would remain in the army.

Julia Boggs Dent was born in 1826 at White Haven plantation west of St. Louis, Missouri. Her parents were Frederick Dent, a slaveholding planter and merchant, and Ellen Wrenshall Dent.  Frederick enslaved about 30 Africans and refused to consider freeing them on moral grounds, doing so only when compelled by law of emancipation. Julia was distantly related to confederate General James Longstreet.

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U.S. Grant married into a family that owned slaves. Love is blind, so they say, in fact, slaves constructed his home near his father-in-law’s plantation, and there came a time when he supervised those slaves on his wife’s familial plantation.  Grant disapproved of slavery, yet, instead of building his home using hired labor, he used slaves.  He disapproved of slavery, yet, he took a job supervising slaves on his father-in-law’s plantation.

Promoted to a Union Captain in 1853, Grant was assigned to command at the newly constructed Fort Humboldt in California.  Separated from his wife and family, Grant began to drink.  Grant was ask to resign in 1854.  

At age 32, with no civilian vocation, Grant needed work to support his growing family. It was the beginning of seven years of financial struggles, poverty, and instability.  Grant’s father offered him a place in the Galena, Illinois, branch of the family’s leather business, but demanded Julia and the children stay in Missouri, with the Dents, or with the Grants in Kentucky. Grant and Julia declined the offer. In 1855, Grant farmed, using Julia’s slave Dan, on his brother-in-law’s property.  The farm was not successful and to earn a living he sold firewood on St. Louis street corners.

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Hardscrabble

The next year, the Grants moved to land on Julia’s father’s farm, and built a home called “Hardscrabble”. Julia described the rustic house as an “unattractive cabin”, but made the dwelling as homelike as possible with the family’s keepsakes and other belongings.  Grant’s family lacked money, clothes, and furniture, but always had enough food. Finally, he moved his family to his father-in-laws 850 acre plantation.  He did not believe in slavery, but he lived on land they worked and suffered. Grant owned one slave, he freed him by a manumission deed, in 1857.  

The same year, Grant acquired a slave from his father-in-law, a thirty-five-year-old man named William Jones. Although Grant was not an abolitionist, he was not considered a “slavery man”, and could not bring himself to force a slave to do work.

 

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In 1860, Grant and his family moved north to Galena, Illinois, accepting a position in his father’s leather goods business run by his younger brothers Simpson and Orvil.   In a few months, Grant paid off his debts.  When the American Civil War began Grant re-enlisted as a Captain when Lincoln called for 75.000 volunteers.

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So the killing of father against father, brother against brother begins.  In the end, Grant ordered a general assault on Lee’s entrenched forces. Union troops captured Richmond.   Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock to carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee’s choosing.  Grant immediately rode west, bypassing Lee’s army, to join Sheridan who had captured Appomattox Station, blocking Lee’s escape route. On his way, Grant received a letter sent by Lee informing him that he was ready to surrender.

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Grant campaigned for the office of president.  The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction intimidating Blacks, and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, alienating War Democrats in the North.  Grant won the popular vote by 300,000 votes out of 5,716,082 votes cast, receiving an Electoral College landslide of 214 votes to Seymour’s 80.   Seymour received a majority of white votes, but Grant was aided by 500,000 votes cast by blacks, winning him the popular vote. At the age of 46, Grant was the youngest president yet elected, and the first president after the nation had outlawed slavery.

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On March 4, 1869, Grant was sworn in as the eighteenth President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. In his inaugural address, Grant urged the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, while large numbers of African Americans attended his inauguration.

Grant was considered an effective civil rights president, concerned about the plight of African Americans.   On March 18, 1869, Grant signed into law equal rights for blacks, to serve on juries and hold office, in Washington D.C., and in 1870 he signed into law the Naturalization Act that gave foreign blacks citizenship.  

During his first term, Reconstruction took precedence. Republicans controlled most Southern states, propped up by Republican controlled Congress, northern money, and southern military occupation. Grant advocated the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment that said states could not disenfranchise African Americans.   

The Union freed the slaves, but then fought to enslave the Native Americans.

When Grant took office in 1869, the nation’s policy towards Native Americans was in chaos, affecting more than 250,000 Native Americans being governed by 370 treaties.   In 1871, Grant ended the sovereign tribal treaty system; by law individual Native Americans were deemed wards of the federal government.  

After gold was discovered and trespassing occurred on Sioux protected lands, Sioux chiefs readied for war.   On November 3, 1875, Grant held a meeting at the White House and, under advice from Sheridan, Grant agreed not to enforce keeping out miners from the Black Hills, and to force “hostile” Native Americans onto the Sioux reservation.

In October 1876, Grant convinced the tribes to relinquish the Black Hills to miners. Congress ratified the agreement three days before Grant left office in 1877.  Relinquish the Black Hills, no; the U.S. government stole the Black Hills from the Native American, who would free the Indians?

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When Grant left office he was nearly broke and worried constantly about leaving his wife a suitable amount of money to live on. Century magazine offered Grant a book contract with a royalty, but Grant’s friend Mark Twain, understanding how bad Grant’s financial condition was, made him an offer for his memoirs which paid Grant three-quarters royalty.   

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To provide for his family, Grant worked intensely on his memoirs at his home in New York City.  Because of the summer heat and humidity, his doctors recommended that he move upstate to a cottage at the top of Mount McGregor, offered by a family friend.  Grant finished his memoir and died only a few days later. 

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 President Grover Cleveland ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Grant’s body on a special funeral train, which traveled to West Point and New York City. A quarter of a million people viewed it in the two days before the funeral. Tens of thousands of men, many of them veterans from the Grand Army of the Republic, marched with Grant’s casket drawn by two dozen black stallions to Riverside Park in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. His pallbearers included Union generals Sherman and Sheridan, Confederate generals Simon Bolivar Buckner and Joseph E. Johnston, Admiral David Dixon Porter, and Senator John A. Logan, the head of the GAR

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Attendance at the New York funeral topped 1.5 million.   Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, while Grant was eulogized in the press and likened to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.   Grant’s body was laid to rest in Riverside Park, first in a temporary tomb, and then—twelve years later, on April 17, 1897—in the General Grant National Memorial, also known as “Grant’s Tomb”, the largest mausoleum in North America.

EAJM

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Blacks who owned Slaves…#217

This will end my series on Slavery in America; this segment includes Black Slave owners and Native American slave owners.  As a people, all races, color or religious beliefs, we have a lot to answer to in how we treated each other from the beginning of the Americus to today.  I hope this series has given some insight to why we must stop the mayhem, stop the violence and destruction of history, least we repeat it.

The US has a long and gruesome history of slavery that has affected almost every part of its culture. Children in school learn the harsh circumstances that slaves were forced to live with and the incredible cruelty white slave owners showed them. American history teachers know how important it is to teach the horrors of slavery—not only so the mistakes of the past aren’t repeated but because the long-term oppression and cruelty toward black people extends even to modern times in important cultural issues such as police brutality and a cycle of poverty that is directly linked to racism caused by slavery.

What isn’t often taught is that there were many black people who not only participated in the slave trade but who often profited greatly from it. They owned slaves as property in order to enhance their own economical well-being by having free labor for their plantations. Many were biracial children of former white masters and were either freed or were left some property in a will. The American South is infamous for using slaves on their large plantations, and many of the black slave owners on this list are from South Carolina and Louisiana. Some were considered slave magnates.

Blacks who owned Slaves

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Anthony Johnson

Nobody affected the history of slavery quite as much as Anthony Johnson. He is rumored to have been the first black man to arrive in Virginia as well as the first black indentured servant in America. He was also the first black man to gain his freedom and the first to own land. As a true pioneer of firsts, Johnson couldn’t stop there. Ironically, he became the first black slave owner, and it was his court case that solidified slavery in America.

In 1635, Johnson was freed and given a 250-acre plantation where he was master over both black and white servants. According to the 1860 census he owned 63 black slaves.

In 1654, Johnson sued his neighbor in a case that would change America’s history forever. Johnson’s servant, John Casor, claimed he was an indentured servant who had worked several years past the terms of his indenture for Johnson and was now working for Johnson’s neighbor, Parker. Johnson sued Parker, stated that Casor was his servant “in perpetuity,” and the courts ruled in his favor. Casor had to return to Johnson, and the case established the principle in America that one person is able to own another person for the rest of their life.

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William Ellison

In 1862, William Ellison was one of the largest slave owners in South Carolina as well as one of the wealthiest. He was born a slave and was given the name April, after the month in which he was born. He was luckier than most and was bought by a white slave owner named William Ellison, who took the time to educate him. When he was 26 years old, he was freed by his master and began building his expansive cotton plantation. As a free man, he had his name changed to William Ellison, that of his former owner.

What makes Ellison so despicable and earns him the number-two spot on this list is how he collected his wealth. Ellison was known to have made a large proportion of his money as a “slave breeder.” Breeding slaves was illegal in many Southern states, but Ellison secretly sold almost all females born, keeping a select few for future breeding. He kept many of the young males, as they were considered useful on his plantation. Ellison was known to be a harsh master and his slaves were almost starved and extremely poorly clothed. He kept a windowless building on his property for the specific purpose of chaining his misbehaving slaves.

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Antoine Dubuclet

Antoine Dubuclet was born a free man to free parents and inherited a large sugar plantation called Cedar Grove from his father. Under his father, the plantation was small and contained only a few slaves. Under Antoine’s leadership, it grew, and by 1860, he owned over 100 slaves and had one of the largest sugar plantations in Louisiana. He was extremely wealthy, even more so than any of his white neighbors. His plantation was worth $264,000, while the average income of his neighbors in the South was only around $3,978.

After marrying a wealthy black woman, his lands expanded, and after her death, Dubuclet was considered the wealthiest black slave owner in Louisiana.  He was elected and served as state treasurer during the Reconstruction Era, one of the only black men to hold the office for more than one term.

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Marie and Claude Metoyer

Marie was living in the Kingdom of Kongo when she met her future husband, who fell deeply in love with her. In a time where interracial marriage was considered wrong and immoral, Marie married a white Frenchman named Claude Metoyer and moved to Louisiana with him and their children.

Because their marriage was not approved of by society, Marie technically remained a slave to her husband. Years later and after six children, Marie was finally freed, and she and her husband divorced. Claude left for France, where he married a French woman. Marie wasn’t left with nothing, however, and started a plantation that initially dealt in tobacco.

Under Marie’s leadership, the Metoyer family prospered, and the plantation grew. Eventually, they owned more slaves than any other family in their county, with the number being reported at 287 by 1830. There isn’t much evidence of harsh treatment to their own slaves, but the Metoyer’s were notorious for buying extra slaves to do the hardest tasks on the plantation and then returning them after the work was finished. This prevented them from having their own slaves do the dirty work.

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Pendarvis Family

During the 1730s, the Pendarvis family was one of the most prominent in the South, owning the biggest rice plantations in the Palmetto region and over 123 slaves. They dominated Colleton County and became one of the wealthiest slaveholding families in South Carolina.

What is ironic is that this family of wealthy black slave owners was given their wealth accidentally when a will was created that gave the estate of Joseph Pendarvis to his illegitimate children with his slave, Parthena.  Despite the family’s own origins, all Pendarvis estates continued to use slave labor as they took over the Palmetto State.

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C. Richards and son P.C.

In 1860, C. Richards and her son P.C. go above and beyond these other slave owners by owning over twice as many. The widow and her son operated a large sugar plantation together and owned more slaves than all other black slave owners in Louisiana in 1860, topping off at 152.

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Justus Angel and L. Horry

Justus Angel and Mistress L. Horry were wealthy black masters who each owned 84 slaves or 168 together.  They were located in Colleton District (now Charleston County) in South Carolina in 1830. Because most slave owners only had a handful of slaves, Angel and Horry were considered economic elite and were called slave magnates.

Slaves were simply labor to Angel and Horry, and they considered them property, hunting down runaway slaves and punishing misbehaving ones. While there is no evidence that they treated their slaves more harshly than other slave owners, they were known to own them strictly for business purposes. They bought, sold, and traded them like property, and misbehaving slaves were punished harshly for interfering with profits.

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Nathanial Butler

Nathanial Butler owned 63 slaves, his of manipulative cruelty that he showed toward his fellow humans. Butler was one of the worst kinds of slave owners. Not only did he participate in the trade, but he actively tricked slaves into running away so that he could sell them back to their masters.

Butler would convince a slave to hide out on his property. Butler would then speak to the slave’s owner to find out what the reward was for returning him. If the reward was high, he would simply return the slave for the money. If the price was low, Butler would buy the slave then resell him to slave dealers down south for a profit. He gained a bad reputation in his county for his scheming actions, and many attempted to hurt and even murder him for revenge.

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Jacob Gasken

Jacob Gasken was born free only because his mother was a free woman. His father was still a slave at the time of his birth. This was rather common at the time, and his mother eventually bought Jacob’s father so that he would no longer have to work as a slave on a plantation.

When Jacob grew older, his mother helped Jacob to buy his father. The family was happy with this arrangement, although the father was technically still their slave.  All was happy until the father attempted to do what all parents do: reprimand his son. This is when this story becomes notable.

One day, Jacob’s father scolded him after Jacob had misbehaved (as any good father would do). Jacob, a petulant, entitled boy, became so angry with his father and sold him to a New Orleans trader and then later bragged to his friends and colleagues about sending his own father to be a slave on a plantation in Louisiana to “teach him some manners.”

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Dilsey Pope

Dilsey Pope was born a free woman, and when she was older, she bought the man she loved in order to marry him. Many state laws at the time would not allow slaves to be emancipated, so it was common for family or spouses to technically own their family. Dilsey owned her own house and land, and she also hired her husband out as labor.

What makes this particular situation so unique is that when Dilsey and her husband had a fight; Dilsey sold him to her white neighbor out of spite.

While many modern women might wish to get rid of their husbands, Dilsey truly takes the cake when it comes to method. Also like many other spouses, she later felt bad about the argument and tried to reconcile. The only problem was that when she went buy her husband back and apologize, her neighbor refused to sell him back.

Native Americans

Americans enslave Native Americans.  North American Europeans enslaved Indians during wars, especially in New England and the Southeast, a lesser extent in North Carolina, Virginia, and Louisiana, Indian slavery was a central means by which early colonist’s funded economic expansion. President Andrew Johnson sent federal troops into the West to put an end to Indian slavery, but it continued to proliferate in California.

At the same time, Native Americans owned and traded in slaves. From the late 18th century on, Native Americans in the South, like whites, owned slaves. And, when the U.S. government “removed” the five nations to the state of Oklahoma) in the 1830s, they took their slaves with them, so by the time the Civil War broke out more than eight thousand blacks were enslaved in Indian Territory.  As late as 1885, the governor of the Chickasaw was still protesting demands that they free their black slaves.

The Native Americans made slaves of other tribe members as well as white’s.  American’s enslaved both Black and Native Americans. 

Slavery continues throughout the world.

EAJM

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President Andrew Johnson owned Slaves… #216

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The Seventeenth President of the United States of America and Vice-President to Abraham Lincoln

Series on Presidential Slavery

Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. He assumed the presidency as he was vice president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Johnson was a Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, coming to office as the Civil War concluded. He favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union without protection for the former slaves. This led to conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1868. He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote

Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina and never attended school. He was apprenticed as a tailor and worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms. He became governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857.

In 1842, Andrew Johnson was a Tennessee State Senator when he bought his first slave.  A Bill of Sale reveals that Andrew Johnson paid $541.00 for Sam, a youth “about thirteen years of age.” On January 3, 1843, Johnson paid $500.00 to purchase Sam’s half-sister, Dolly. She was “about nineteen.”  Fourteen years later, on May 6, 1857, Johnson paid $1015.00 for Henry, another youth “about thirteen years of age.”  With chilling insensitivity, all were warranted to be “sound, healthy, sensible, and a slave for life.”  Henry would later accompany the Johnson family to the White House.

In late July 1875, he suffered a stroke, but refused medical treatment until the next day, when he did not improve and two doctors were sent for from Elizabethton. He suffered another stroke on the evening of July 30, and died early the following morning at the age of 66.

Johnson is among those commonly mentioned as the worst presidents in U.S. history.   The maintenance of white supremacy. His boost to Southern conservatives by undermining Reconstruction was his legacy to the nation, one that would trouble the country for generations to come.

EAJM

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Abraham Lincoln and it ends – so you thought … #214

The Sixteenth President of the United States of America

Series on Presidential Slavery

Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. His family attended a Baptist church, which had strict moral standards and opposed alcohol, dancing, and slavery.  The family moved north across the Ohio River to Indiana, where slavery was not allowed, and made a new start in then Perry, now Spencer County, Indiana. Lincoln later noted that this move was “partly on account of slavery” but mainly due to land title difficulties.  

Slavery in Illinois existed for more than a century. While Illinois’ first state constitution in 1818 stated that slavery shall not be “thereafter introduced”, slavery was still tolerated in the early years of Illinois statehood. However, Illinois voters in 1824 rejected a proposal for a new constitutional convention that could have made slavery legal outright.   Nevertheless, legislation led to one of the most restrictive Black Code systems in the nation until the American Civil War. The Illinois Black Code of 1853 prohibited any Black persons from outside of the state from staying in the state for more than ten days, subjecting Black emigrants who remain beyond the ten days to arrest, detention, a $50 fine, or deportation. The Code was repealed in early 1865, the same year that the Civil War ended. At that time, Illinois also became the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery nationally.

Abraham Lincoln’s position on slavery is one of the most discussed aspects of his life. Lincoln often expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private.  “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong”, he stated in a now-famous quote. “I cannot remember when I did not so think, and feel.”  However, the question of what to do about it and how to end it given that it was so firmly embedded in the nation’s constitutional framework and in the economy of much of the country was complex and politically challenging.

As early as the 1850s, Lincoln was attacked as an abolitionist. But while many abolitionists emphasized the sinfulness of individual owners, Lincoln did not. Lincoln was married to Mary Todd Lincoln, the daughter of a slave owner from Kentucky. While William Lloyd Garrison in The Liberator newspaper and a small but growing group of abolitionists called for total, immediate abolition of slavery, Lincoln instead focused on the goal of preventing the creation of new slave states and specifically blocking the expansion of slavery into the new Western territories.  

Lincoln, with partial compensation to owners, ended slavery in the District of Columbia in 1862; the abolitionist goal became possible after decades with the departure of the southern members of Congress at the beginning of the American Civil War.  In 1862 slavery was abolished in Washington, D.C., and in an effort to keep the local slave owners loyal to the Union Abraham Lincoln’s administration offered to pay $300 each in compensation.

 His plan was to halt the spread of slavery, and to offer monetary compensation to slave-owners in states that agreed to end slavery.  The slave owner received payment for their loss.  He was considered a moderate within a Republican party that, nevertheless, took the radical position that slavery should be put on a course of “ultimate extinction” with the help of the federal government.

When Lincoln accepted the nomination for the Union party for President in June, 1864, he called for the first time for the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, to immediately abolish slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. He wrote in his letter of acceptance that “it would make a fitting and necessary conclusion” to the war and would permanently join the causes of “Liberty and Union.” He won re-election on this platform in November, and in December, 1864, Lincoln worked to have the House approve the amendment.

When the House passed the 13th amendment on January 31, 1865, Lincoln signed the amendment, although this was not a legal requirement, and said in a speech the next day, “He thought all would bear him witness that he had never shrunk from doing all that he could to eradicate slavery by issuing an emancipation proclamation.” He pointed out that the emancipation proclamation did not complete the task of eradicating slavery; “But this amendment is a King’s cure for all the evils of slavery.”

The thirteenth amendment to abolish slavery, which Lincoln ultimately sent to the states, provided no compensation but earlier in his presidency, Lincoln made numerous proposals for “compensated emancipation” in the loyal Border States whereby the federal government would purchase all of the slaves and free them. No state government acted on the proposal.

President Lincoln advocated that slave owners be compensated for emancipated slaves.  On March 6, 1862 President Lincoln, in a message to the U.S. Congress, stated that emancipating slaves would create economic “inconveniences” and justified compensation to the slave owners. The resolution was adopted by Congress; however, the Southern states refused to comply. On July 12, 1862 President Lincoln, in a conference with Congressmen from Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and Missouri, encouraged their respective states to adopt emancipation legislation that gave compensation to the slave owners. On July 14, 1862 President Lincoln sent a bill to Congress that allowed the Treasury to issue bonds at 6% interest to states for slave emancipation compensation to the slave owners. The bill was never voted on by Congress.

As late as the Hampton Roads Conference in 1865, Lincoln met with Confederate leaders and proposed a “fair indemnity”, possibly $500,000,000, in compensation for emancipated slaves.

Lincoln proposed Colonization of freed slaves was long seen by many as an answer to the problem of slavery. One of President Abraham Lincoln’s policies during his administration was the voluntary colonization of African American freedmen; he firmly opposed compulsory colonization, full citation needed and in one instance ordered the Secretary of War to bring some colonized blacks back to the United States.

The Pre-Emancipation Proclamation offered support for the colonization of free blacks outside of the United States.   Known as the “lullaby” theory is that Lincoln adopted colonization for Freedmen in order to make his Emancipation Proclamation politically acceptable.

Did this President not want the black people in America?  President Lincoln supported colonization during the Civil War as a sensible answer for the newly freed slaves. At his urging, Congress included text in the Confiscation Act of 1862 indicating support for Presidential authority to re-colonize consenting African Americans.   With this authorization, Lincoln created an agency to direct his colonization projects. At the suggestion of Lincoln, in 1862, Congress appointed $600,000 to fund and created the Bureau of Emigration in the U.S. Department of the Interior.

President Lincoln first proposed a Panama colony for blacks in October 1861. Several hundred acres of Chiriquí Province in Panama had in 1855 been granted to the Chiriquí Improvement Company for coal mining. The Company supplied the US Navy with half-price coal during the war, but required more workers. Congress gravitated towards this plan in mid-1862, and Lincoln appointed Kansas Senator Samuel Pomeroy to oversee it. Pomeroy promised 40 acres and a job to willing blacks, and chose 500 of 13,700 who applied.  Lincoln signed a contract with businessman Ambrose W. Thompson, the owner of the land, and made plans to send tens of thousands of African Americans. Pomeroy secured $25,000 from Congress to pay for transportation and equipment.

In December 1862, Lincoln signed a contract with businessman Bernard Kock to establish a colony on the Ile à Vache, an island of Haiti. 453 freed slaves departed for the island from Fort Monroe, Virginia. A government investigation had deemed Kock untrustworthy, and Secretary of State William Seward stopped the plan from going forward after learning of Kock’s involvement.

In addition to Panama and Haiti, Mitchell’s office also oversaw attempts at colonization in British Honduras and elsewhere in the British West Indies. Lincoln believed that by dealing with the comparatively stable British Government, he could avoid some of the problems that plagued his earlier attempts at colonization with private interests.

He signed an agreement on June 13, 1863, with John Hodge of British Honduras that authorized colonial agents to recruit ex-slaves and transport them to Belize from approved ports in Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston. Later that year the Department of the Interior sent John Willis Menard, a free African-American clerk who supported colonization, to investigate the site for the government. British authorities pulled out of the agreement in December, fearing it would disrupt their position of neutrality in the Civil War. No ex-slaves were resettled there. It has been suggested that General Benjamin F. Butler claimed that Lincoln approached him in 1865 a few days before his assassination, to talk about reviving colonization in Panama. 

In his second term as president, on April 11, 1865, Lincoln gave a speech in which, for the first time publicly, he promoted voting rights for blacks. John Wilkes Booth, a Southerner and outspoken Confederate sympathizer, attended the speech and became determined to kill Lincoln for supporting citizenship for blacks. Booth is reported to have remarked: “That is the last speech he will make.”

On Lincoln’s death, Vice President Andrew Johnson became president, and was sworn in by Chief Justice Salmon Chase between 10 and 11 a.m.

EAJM

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Did President Millard Fillmore owned Slaves, No but read on… #213

Millard Fillmore

The Thirteenth  President of the United States of America

Series on Presidential Slavery

Born of humble origins in New York State, Millard Fillmore was one of the few presidents actually born in a log cabin, in Cayuga County, New York. He received little formal education, apprenticing to a wool carder as a teenager before switching to work in a law office. At 23, he was admitted to the New York bar. Fillmore had fallen in love with Abigail Powers, a teacher, when he was 19, but refused to marry until 1826, when he had established himself as a lawyer.

Fillmore entered politics in 1828 as a member of the Anti-Masonic Party, built on democratic, libertarian principles and an opposition to exclusive societies like Freemasonry. Elected to the state assembly, Fillmore became a close ally of the powerful New York political boss Thurlow Weed, who supported his run for the House of Representatives in 1831. Weed led the Anti-Masons into the new Whig Party in 1834.

Millard Fillmore served four terms in Congress but declined to run for reelection after 1843. At Weed’s urging, he ran unsuccessfully for governor of New York in 1844. Four years later, Fillmore was serving as comptroller of New York when he was chosen as a dark horse pick for vice president under the Mexican War hero Zachary Taylor. As a pro-business northerner, Fillmore served to balance the victorious Whig ticket opposite Taylor, a slaveholder from Louisiana.  You cannot be against slavery if you support someone who is a slave owner.  President Taylor died in 1850, and Fillmore became the Nation’s 13th president.

The slave trade in Washington, D.C., was soon abolished, while staying strong was a Fugitive Slave Act put federal officers at the disposal of slave owners seeking their runaway slaves. Fillmore, who opposed slavery personally, was unwilling to touch it in states where it already existed for the sake of preserving the Union. Over the next few years, he consistently authorized the use of federal force in carrying out the return of slaves, further enraging northern abolitionistsAgain, you cannot be against slavery and support the southern states under an Act that returns runaway slaves, knowing they will be punished, maimed or killed for their actions.

In 1852, the Whigs denied Millard Fillmore their presidential nomination in favor of General Winfield Scott, who lost to Democrat Franklin Pierce in the general election. Fillmore refused to join the new Republican Party and endorse its strong antislavery platform, and in 1856 he accepted the presidential nomination of the short-lived Know-Nothing (or American) Party. After finishing third behind Democrat James Buchanan and Republican John C. Fremont, Fillmore retired from politics. His wife Abigail had died in 1853, and in 1858 he married a wealthy widow, Caroline McIntosh.

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Fillmore opposed the policies of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, throughout the Civil War (1861-1865). Fillmore died in 1874 after suffering a stroke. Fillmore has largely been remembered for his undecided stance on slavery and his failure to prevent growing sectional conflict from erupting into a full-blown civil war.

EAJM

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